Shirin Neshat, the best known artist in the Iranian diaspora, is a photographer and film-maker, who lives in New York City. Neshat has used Persian poetry and calligraphy in her works to examine concepts of martyrdom, exile, and feminism in the Muslim world.
Neshat was studying art in California at U.C. Berkeley when the Iranian revolution took place in 1979. Returning to Iran in 1990 for the first time in twelve years, Neshat was shocked by the transformation caused by Islamic fundamentalism, especially requiring women to wear the chador in public. Upon her return to the United States, the black chador became a central motif in her work.
The condition of women in the Muslim world – especially in Iran – are dominant in her work. Neshat’s black & white photographic series “Women of Allah” 1993-1997 addresses the role of militant Muslim women, who fought in the 1979 revolution that overthrew the Shah. She shows armed Islamic women clothed in full-length chadors. Her gelatin-silver print of “Rebellious Silence” 1994 makes dramatic use of the chador to isolate her subject’s face. The uncovered part of the face is written on with Farsi texts, written by Iranian female poets.
Neshat’s video art often takes the form of double projections to show the separation of public and private space with a viewer placed between two screens. One screen shows a man; the other a woman. In “Turbulent” 1998 both the man and the woman sing. In the end, only the voice of the woman is heard.
Time and history infiltrate her art as can be seen in black & white photos from her series “The Book of Kings,” in which she superimposes line-drawings from historical lithographs illustrating the epic poem the”Shahnama” onto the legs or torsos of anonymous men. In one photograph “Divine Rebellion” a pair of legs, shown from the toes to just before the knees, fills the frame. Drawn on them are pictures from the “Shahnama” of fighting medieval warriors. Red blood gushes from a black-and-white warrior’s torso. There is haunted ambiguity in the placement of the legs, which could be taking a step forward or could be dangling in space as if from a hanged body.
Neshat has won numerous awards, including an international award at the Venice Biennale in 1999 and an award for best director at the 2009 Venice Film Festival. In 2016, she was awarded a U.S.A. Rockefeller Fellow. Neshat’s tattoo photographs can be seen in LACMA’s comprehensive exhibiton of Iranian art, “In the Fields of Empty Days” through September 9.